What are the five metacognitive strategies?


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Page last updated: 24/09/2022

What are the five metacognitive strategies?

This blog answers: What are the five metacognitive strategies? What are some other metacognition strategies for students?

What are the five metacognitive strategies?

The five metacognitive strategies are:

Teach individuals how to use their brains to grow.

Peoples attitudes toward learning and their own brains will have an impact on their performance. Individuals who adopt a growth mindset rather than a fixed mindset are more likely to engage in reflective thinking about how they learn and improve, according to research. 

Teaching students about metacognition science may be a powerful tool, allowing them to see how they can practically build their own brains.

 Allow individuals to practise identifying what they don’t know.

The act of being perplexed and recognising one’s lack of knowledge is a crucial aspect of self-awareness development. “What was most perplexing about the material we studied today?” inquire at the end of a hard class. 

This not only kickstarts metacognitive processing but also fosters a classroom culture that accepts perplexity as a necessary component of learning.

People should keep learning notebooks.

Personal learning notebooks are one technique to help individuals keep track of their own thoughts. Assign weekly reflection questions that encourage students to think about how they learnt rather than what they learned. 

The following are examples of possible questions:

  • What was the easiest thing for me to pick up this week? Why?
  • What did I find the most difficult to learn? Why?
  • What study methods did I find to be most effective as I prepared for my exam?
  • What exam-preparation tactics failed miserably? What am I going to do differently the next time?
  • What study habits did I find to be the most effective? How?
  • Next week, what study habits will I try or improve?

To improve monitoring skills, use a “wrapper.”

A “wrapper” is a brief intervention that incorporates a metacognitive practice into an existing activity. Give some active listening advice before a lecture, for example. 

After the lecture, have students write down three essential points from the presentation. After that, give your thoughts on the three main principles and have students self-assess how closely theirs matched your desired objectives. This activity improves both learning and metacognitive monitoring skills when performed frequently. 

Assist in the development of reflective thinking.

The metacognitive process of becoming aware of our biased preconceptions that obstruct healthy development is known as reflexivity. 

By promoting conversation that challenges human and social biases, teachers can foster a classroom culture that promotes deeper learning and reflexivity. 

Students learn to “think about their own thinking” as they engage in debates or write articles about prejudices and moral difficulties relating to politics, wealth, racism, poverty, justice, liberty, and other topics. They start to question their own biases and become more adaptable and flexible thinkers.

What are the five metacognitive strategies?

Strengths and weaknesses awareness

The ability to recognize one’s own strengths and faults is important to metacognition. Self-improvement can only be achieved by taking a hard look at yourself and making an honest appraisal of your flaws.

A SWOT chart is one approach to start looking at your strengths and vulnerabilities. 

A SWOT chart is a four-sectioned diagram:

Strengths: jot down what you consider to be your learning strengths.

Weaknesses: jot down what you consider to be your learning weaknesses.

Opportunities: Identify any possibilities you may have in the coming weeks or months to develop your cognitive abilities.

Threats: identify potential roadblocks to developing your cognitive abilities in the coming weeks or months

What are some other metacognition strategies for students?

Metacognitive strategies refer to the tools that students can use to monitor their self-improvement and become positive learners. It requires a student to control their thinking in ways that help them to meet their goals optimally.


Meditation is known to be one of the most effective metacognitive strategies to help keep a student’s mind clear. Meditation helps to clear out the chaos that goes on in a student’s head due to internal and external affairs. It helps a student to stay focused and calm during learning.

It is believed that meditation is carried out to become more aware of one’s own inner self and thought process.

Being aware of one’s learning styles

Learning theories argue that different students have different ways of learning particular concepts. For instance, some students feel they learn better through imagery than through reading while it is the opposite for other students

Use of Mnemonics


Mnemonics can be looked at as a useful tool that students can use to improve their retention capacity. This might include various tools like forming associations, use of rhymes, patterns, and abbreviations.

Mnemonics Make it much easier to recall information by adding context to a fact.

Writing down you’re working

Many teachers insist that the students make a note of their working for a solution. Making notes about the steps to achieve the solution helps students to analyze their steps and reflect upon them.

Making a note of the steps that lead to a particular solution or particular task also helps to identify the positives and negatives through the way.

Thinking aloud

One of the important sociocultural theories of education given by Lev Vygotsky indicates that new learners tend to think aloud before internalizing their thinking. The theory proposes that thinking aloud makes a student think deep.

Thinking aloud not only helps students become more conscious about their cognitive processes but also helps other students identify areas that are going astray.

Active reading strategies

Reading strategies are strategies that ensure a student concentrate while they are reading and comprehend the information correctly.

Active listening strategies

Active listening strategies are some ways that students ensure they are actively and attentively listening.

Some examples of active listening strategies involve:

  • Facing the speakers directly
  • Making eye contact
  • Asking questions
  • Acknowledging the speaker when required
  • Repeating and rephrasing what was said by the speaker.


People are more capable of self-improvement when they “think about their thinking.” Metacognitive strategies can be studied, practised, and developed into habits to help students learn, study, and think more effectively in the future. 

Humans are also the species that are capable of metacognition and hence we always strive to be the best version of ourselves. In order to do better.

Frequently asked questions: What are the five metacognitive strategies?

What impact do metacognitive skills have on students’ learning?

Metacognition aids students in recognising the difference between being familiar with a topic and really comprehending it. 

Metacognitive exercises, which help children reflect on their own learning and build higher-order thinking, have been shown to benefit children as early as three years old, according to research.

What is metacognition?

Metacognition is the ability to be aware of and control one’s own thoughts. Metacognition can be as simple as recognising that you have trouble recalling people’s names in social circumstances.

Is metacognition something that everyone has?

While “inner language,” which is regarded to be a necessity, begins around the age of five in most youngsters, metacognition does not exist for everyone. 

What are the four types of metacognitive?

Perkins described 4 levels of metacognitive learners which are tactic, aware, strategic, and reflective. Tactic learners are those who are unaware of their cognitive knowledge. 

They do not process any particular strategies for learning and hardly acknowledge the information they already hold. 

What are metacognitive skills?

Metacognition is described as one’s awareness about their thought process or any relational elements. Possessing metacognitive skills indicates being well aware of one’s thought process through various tools and measures which aim towards improved learning.

What are the three categories of metacognitive knowledge?

Flavell divided metacognitive knowledge into three sectors that are the knowledge of person variables, task variables, and strategy variables.