Shadowing psychology: MCAT questions

In this blog we present to you common Shadowing psychology MCAT questions.

We will also discuss what shadowing is in psychology, what the shadowing technique is, why it is used, and we will also present to you a step by step guide into shadowing technique. 

Shadowing psychology: MCAT questions

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Here are some popular MCAT questions on shadowing psychology from quizlet:

Question 1: Shadowing task allows one to test for ________________ attention.

Answer 1: Shadowing task allows one to test for selective attention. Subjects are presented with two different messages, one in their right ear and one in their left, then they’re told to shadow the attended message by repeating it out loud with a delay of a few seconds between hearing a word and repeating the word. (quizlet)

Question 2: Shadowing

Answer 2: Shadowing refers to speech shadowing is an experimental technique in which subjects repeat speech immediately after hearing it. (quizlet)

Question 3: What is the purpose of shadowing?

Answer 3: It is used to study attention.Task- Focus attention on the words in one ear,which we will call the attended ear,and as you hear the words,REPEAT them out loud. This procedure of repeating what you are hearing is called shadowing. The second part of the task is to notice,WITHOUT shifting your attention from the attended ear,what you can take in from the other,unattended ear. (Quizlet)

What is shadowing in psychology?

According to the American Psychological association, shadowing in psychology refers to a form of cognitive testing which is used in assessing attention of an individual. 

It is defined as,

“…a task in which a participant repeats aloud a message word for word at the same time that the message is being presented, often while other stimuli are presented in the background.” (American Psychological association)

Thus, in the cognitive testing task “shadowing” the individual is asked to repeat the words as it is being present while also being subjected to other inferences like white noise or other stimuli to assess their attention and focus. 

This form of testing is usually used in attention studies to test for selective attention. In this form of testing, subjects are presented with two different messages in each ear. 

Then they are asked to attend to only one message and shadow it by repeating it out loud usually after a delay of a few seconds between hearing a word and repeating the word.

What is the shadowing technique?

Shadowing technique is an applied technique based on the shadowing tasks for language learning. 

Shadowing technique is an advanced language learning technique for language learners to improve their intonation and pronunciation.

In this technique, the individual or learner is asked to listen to a model- their teacher, the speech and hearing therapist, or a recording of someone speaking- then they are asked to repeat what they say as the model also speaks. 

The idea is that the learner repeats word for word, with the same tone, the same sound, immediately or with as little delay as possible as the learner listens to the speaker. 

This activity of technique of language learning is usually done to hone their skills as a language speaker, or as an interpreter as well. 

For example, this technique will be used by language translators and interpreters to train their skills and hone their ability to do real time translations. 

Why is shadowing technique used?

To understand why shadowing as a technique is used, you have to understand that speech and language is not a simple process, rather it follows many stages and is a complex process. 

While there has been presently research done to understand the process of speech and speaking, there is no single model that is inclusive due to the fact that science today is still unable to encapsulate what exactly happens when one produces speech.

However, researchers have come to conclude that certain factors such as emotions can play a big role in speech production. Another important factor is that of Situational anxiety which increases the frequency of speech errors,

These two factors, emotion and anxiety, as well as non-verbal components such as body language or nonverbal languages such as sign languages are not thoroughly understood based on traditional models of speech. 

However, it appears that all models of speech agree that speech production involves the following:

  • Conceptualization which refers to the process of deciding upon the message to be conveyed
  • Sentence formation which involves Lexicalization which is the selection the appropriate words and Syntactic structuring which refers to the selecting the appropriate order and grammatical rules 
  • Articulation which involves the execution of specific motor and muscular movements necessary to produce the sounds required. 

Thus, the process of speech production is not a simple process and each process functions independently. Thus, having to coordinate these processes in fractions of a second is a major feat and it becomes even more challenging when one has to do it for a second language. 

This is why shadowing is used to help teach speech and new languages because it takes the initial stage of conceptualisation thus it lightens the cognitive load of the learner. 

Instead of wondering how to conceptualise the message and send across the message perfectly, the learner can first start to learn how to pronounce the words correctly as the shadowing technique focuses on the  phonological and phonetic stages.

In shadowing, the message is not the concern but rather, the focus is on getting the learners to repeat the words and reproduce the words as phonologically accurate as possible. 

Step by step guide to shadowing

Let us take a moment to learn the shadowing technique:

Step one: Select a model

The first step in the process of using the shadowing technique to learn a language is to select a mode. The model can be anyone, your teacher, a recording, a tv presenter etc. 

Note that the audio should be short with only one individual speaking. 

Make sure that the audio is no longer than five minutes and it does not have a lot of ambivalent noise or background notice. 

It is important to know that the speaker need not be a native language speaker; however, they must be able to pronounce the words clearly and be proficient in the language. 

A few examples for a model include: a public speaker or a TV presenter or a teacher. 

Step two: Listen

The first thing you need to do is to listen to the audio at least once to get used to the speaker or the model.

Make note of the accent, rhythm, and intonation of the model and try to get used to it or familiarise yourself to it. 

As you listen, you need not understand the words or understand what they are saying, just listen to the sounds that the model is producing, 

If the content is too fast or too complex. Seek out a new model whose pace matches yours.

Step three: Practise shadowing

Now, start with practising shadowing by repeating what the model is saying as quickly and accurately as possible. 

You don’t have to get it right the first couple of times, the idea here is to practise and get used to the intonation, rhythm etc further- get a feel for it. 

It can be challenging the first couple of tries, but make an effort to follow as quickly and accurately as possible.

Break the clip into 30 seconds periods and each time you make a mistake, go back to the start of the audio and repeat the process. 

Remember that you are not trying to understand the meaning at this point, you are only trying to get used to the idea of the speech sounds that the model is speaking. 

Continue the practice of 30 second intervals until you complete the entire audio clip and repeat it as much as possible. 

Step four: Record it

Once you are able to complete the entire audio accurately, and you have practised enough or feel more confident, you can try to audio record yourself. 

Listen to the audio through headphones and then follow the process of shadowing where you repeat what you hear as accurately and as quickly as possible while recording your voice on a different device. 

Step five:Listen back

Now that you have recorded it, listen back to the recordings and compare your speech to the original audio. 

Make notes of what areas you are making mistakes or what tones you find difficulty in reproducing. This practice can be part of the process with which you can learn a new language.

Conclusion

In this blog we presented to you common Shadowing psychology MCAT questions.

We have also discuss what shadowing is in psychology, what the shadowing technique is, why it is used, and we will also present to you a step by step guide into shadowing technique. 

FAQ related to Shadowing psychology MCAT questions

What is shadowing in the dichotic listening task?

A dichotic-listening task is a form of testing that is usually used in attention studies to test for selective attention. In this form of testing, subjects are presented with two different messages in each ear. 

Then they are asked to attend to only one message and shadow it by repeating it out loud usually after a delay of a few seconds between hearing a word and repeating the word.

What is shadowing linguistics?

Shadowing linguistics refer to Speech shadowing which is a psycholinguistic experimental technique in which subjects are made to repeat speech to assess how long the brain takes to process and produce speech.

What is shadowing in medicine?

Shadowing in the medical field refers to following a doctor during the course of day-to-day work in a clinic, hospital, or operating room to understand the roles and responsibilities of a doctor in practice. 

What is the purpose of shadowing?

Shadowing technique is an applied technique based on the shadowing tasks for language learning. 

Shadowing technique is an advanced language learning technique for language learners to improve their intonation and pronunciation.

What is auditory shadowing?

Auditory shadowing is a cognitive testing task “shadowing” the individual is asked to repeat the words as it is being present while also being subjected to other inferences like white noise or other stimuli to assess their attention and focus. 

Reference

Shadowing. APA dictionary of psychology. Retrieved on 13th April 2022. https://dictionary.apa.org/shadowing

N., Sam M.S., “SHADOWING,” in PsychologyDictionary.org, April 13, 2013, https://psychologydictionary.org/shadowing/ (accessed April 12, 2022).

Psycholinguistics/Models of Speech Production. Wikiversity. Retrieved on 13th April 2022. https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Psycholinguistics/Models_of_Speech_Production#Models_of_Speech_Production

James Venner. Step by step guide to the shadowing technique. FREED. Retrieved on 13th April 2022. https://www.freeed.com/articles/803/step-by-step-guide-to-the-shadowing-technique

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