Generalized Anxiety Disorder (A Comprehensive Guide)

This brief guide the Generalized Anxiety Disorder will be discussed along with what is Anxiety, what Anxiety disorders are, what causes generalized anxiety and generalized anxiety disorder can be treated.

When an individual is uncertain about future consequences he or she might face in an unfamiliar and new situation, there will be fear and apprehensions.

This is the body’s natural response and is named as Anxiety.

For instance, giving a presentation in front of the whole class or the first day of a job may cause feelings of fear and nervousness.

Certain amount of Anxiety is necessary for survival and it might actually keep some people motivated to do work and engage in problem-solving.

Anxiety becomes problematic when it starts interfering in daily routine and stops the person from being productive.

If the anxiety feelings cross the threshold level and last for six months, then it is called Anxiety Disorder.

Anxiety and Anxiety Disorder

There is a difference between normal Anxiety and Anxiety Disorder, having a knowledge of that will help the person treat it properly.

Anxiety

Anxiety is defined by The American Psychological Association (APA), is an emotion which is characterized by worrying thoughts, feelings of tensions and physical discomfort like stomach ache or increased blood pressure in the face of potential danger.

Anxiety causes distress but it does not always require medical attention.

Though the opposite of anxiety can also help people overcome their anxious thoughts.

Anxiety is necessary for survival. Since the earliest days of humanity, whenever any danger approached, it causes adrenalin to rush.

The adrenaline is a body hormone and it triggers the anxious reactions, ”fight-or-flight.

This, in turn, causes our ancestors to either confront the danger and fight it or run to take refuge in a safe place.

Now, the anxiety is revolving around money, work, health, family life and other areas of life that require an individual’s attention.

A common example of Anxiety would be looking at both sides of the road before crossing it because of the fear of being hit by a car.

Anxiety disorders

When the anxiety exceeds in intensity, it turns into Anxiety Disorder.

It is a mental health diagnosis given to people with excessive worry, apprehension, nervousness, and fear.

Anxiety disorders change how an individual behaves and handles emotions that consequently cause physical symptoms.

Mild level of anxiety causes discomfort and unsettling feelings but severe anxiety disturbs a person’s day to day life.

As defined by the American Psychological Association, diagnosis of Generalized Anxiety disorder is given when the individual is experiencing persistent intrusive concerns or thoughts.

Normal Anxiety when it exceeds a level that it starts interfering in daily life, it becomes a Generalized Anxiety Disorder.

Symptoms of Generalized Anxiety Disorder

There are many types of Anxiety Disorder and with their distinguished symptoms, however, more general type of Anxiety Disorder is called Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) which is most prevalent and consist of basic Anxiety symptoms such as:

·        Feeling of being ”on-edge”

·        Restlessness

·        Excessive worry

·        Excessive irritability or heartburn

·        Difficulty in concentrating and focusing

·        Sleep disturbances or anxiety headache

In daily life, these symptoms are normal to experience but those with GAD experience them on a higher intensity and persistently.

Types of Anxiety Disorder

Anxiety Disorders include the following types of diagnosis classified by The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Health Disorders: Fifth Edition (DSM-V):

Separation anxiety disorder: Excessive fear of separating from those to whom the individual is attached lasting for 4 weeks in children and 6 months in adults.

·        High level of anxiety when anticipating or being away from home or attachment figure

·        Persistent worry of losing a loved one

·        Persistent worry of harm to oneself

·        Refusal to go out, away from the caregiver

·        Fear of being alone or sleeping away from home

·        Nightmares with the theme of separation

Selective Mutism:

·        Failure to speak outside of home in social situations even in school

·        They can speak at home when the parents are present

·        Inability to speak even in the presence of close friends or immediate family members

Specific phobia:

·        Excessive fear related to a particular object or situation, for instance, height, animals or flying. Many children also experience anxiety when exposed to math.

Specific phobias also include fearing anything new, object/situation. For instance, students experience university anxiety before going into it.

·        Avoidance of the phobic stimulus

·        Children might show signs of this disorder by clinging, throwing tantrums, crying or freezing

Social anxiety disorder, or Social phobia:

·        Fear of being in situations where others might judge based on performance, for example status anxiety.

·        Fear or having conversation or meeting unfamiliar people

·        The individual fears that his anxiety symptoms will show and he will be negatively evaluated, for instance dental anxiety.

·        Avoidance of social situations or endured with extreme fear

Panic disorder:

·        Unexpected persistent panic attacks

·        Sudden intense discomfort that reaches a peak within a minute

·        Symptoms include sweating, palpitations, pain in chest, heat sensations or chills, fear of dying or losing control

·        Excessive worry about having an unexpected panic attack

Agoraphobia:

·        Extreme fear and avoidance of situations, events or places where escape is not possible in the face of danger

·        It can be fear of open spaces, public transportations, enclosed places, being in a crowd or going outside of home

·        They can avoid public situations to the extent that their everyday life becomes extremely difficult

Generalized anxiety disorder:

The symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder have been explained earlier, this is the most common disorder among the population of having an anxiety disorder.

It includes excessive worry about almost everything that causes discomfort and disrupts the day-to-day life of a person and those around him.

Diagnostic Criteria of Generalized Anxiety Disorder

According to DSM 5, the diagnostic criteria for generalized anxiety disorder is:

A.     Excessive or uncontrollable worry for at least 6 months

B.     It is difficult for the person to control worry

C.      Anxiety and worry are associated with at least 3 or more of the following symptoms

a.      Restlessness

b.      Sleep disturbance

c.      Fatigue

d.      Difficulty concentrating

e.      Irritability

f.       Muscle Tension

D.     Anxiety and worry are causing significant disturbance in other areas of life

E.      The symptoms are not because of another medical or psychological condition.

As mentioned above, DSM-V is a diagnostic manual. However, there is a measurement tool used to determine the severity of Generalized anxiety disorder.

Anxiety Attack

Anxiety attack is like a panic attack but its intensity is a little less and it can stay for a longer period of time and may worsen with the stressful event approaching.

Every individual with anxiety attacks experiences symptoms differently and in different severity.

Because not all the symptoms of Anxiety attack happen to everyone and they change every time.

The symptoms are as follows:

·        Sweating

·        Dry mouth

·        Worry and apprehensions

·        Failing dizzy

·        Restlessness

·        Tingling or numbness

·        Shortness of breath

·        fear

A panic attack stays for a minute or two but an anxiety attack can stay for longer periods of time. 

Causes of Generalized Anxiety Disorder

Like many other mental conditions, the causes of Generalized Anxiety Disorders are not fully understood.

Those who are already prone to anxiety may develop Generalized Anxiety Disorder after any traumatic or extremely stressful life event.

There can be some Medical causes of Anxiety. Any underlying medical condition might be causing the symptoms of anxiety.

Examples of such conditions include:

·        diabetes

·        heart diseases

·        drug misuse or withdrawal

·        thyroid problems

·        rare tumours

·        as a side effect of any medications

There are some risk factors that might be leading to the development of Anxiety-related disorders.

These risk factors include

1. Personality Type (For example, someone who is a procrastinator is very likely to suffer from anxiety)

2. Stress buildup

3. Having blood relatives who have anxiety or Generalized Anxiety Disorder

4. Going through certain trauma

5. Other mental disorders like depression or OCD

6. Substance use

Current life situations can also cause Anxiety.

Like, feeling under stress while studying or preparing for exams, losing a closed one, less sleep hours, too much work pressure, money problems or being out of work.

Treatment of Generalized Anxiety Disorder

Sometimes because of Anxiety, other conditions take place such as depression, substance dependence and sometimes they are the underlying cause of Anxiety.

Such conditions have strong effects on the mental health of a person and need to be taken care of immediately before treating any Generalized Anxiety Disorder.

Medications, psychotherapy and behavioural therapies are the forms of treatments for Generalized Anxiety Disorder.

They will be discussed one by one.

Self-treatment

In order to manage anxiety or Generalized Anxiety Disorder without having to go under clinical supervision, many people choose self-treatment at home.

Research even suggests that therapist supplemented bibliotherapy could provide an efficacious treatment option for families isolated from traditional treatment services. Here, we have listed some of the best CBT books you can use to improve anxiety.

These techniques might not be effective for a person with severe anxiety or in the long run.

Following are the techniques for people with mild anxiety and who need short term benefits:

Relaxation techniques: Relaxation techniques have great benefits even if the person does not have anxiety.

These include deep breathing, yoga, resting in the dark, meditation and long baths. Check this quick guide to the best sage products that will help you deal with anxiety.

A relaxing bath can be very beneficial, you can add bath salts to your bubble bath, check the Lush Bath Bombs for Anxiety site and our Epsom Salts top.

Many people also believe in the Crystal Healing Theory to treat anxiety which proved to be useful. Check the Best Crystals and Stones for groundind anxiety and panic attacks. They will look like precious jewelry.

Stress management: one of the main reasons for elevated anxiety is stress-related work.

Learning stress management techniques helps in limiting the trigger.

These include organizing beforehand for the upcoming deadline, making to-do lists and committing to take time out from work or study. To manage stress, Bimuno can also be used.

Support network: anxiety turns into depression when the person stops seeking support and going out with friends.

Anxiety can be managed by talking things out with people who care and are supportive.

And for those who are not comfortable with seeking help from familiar people, there are online platforms available where they can talk it out

Exercise: exercising is a great way to release bodily tensions. If hardcore exercise is too much, a person can get incredible benefits just from sticking to a daily brisk walk.

It improves physical health as well as increases positive feelings

Different types of naturally produced products also help in treating people with anxiety. For instance, Cocaine.

Professional Help

Psychological counselling is a standard treatment for anxiety.

The techniques used in counselling can be cognitive behaviour therapy, psychotherapy or eclectic therapy which is a combination of other therapies.

Cognitive Behavior Therapy: CBT aims at changing the harmful negative thoughts upon recognizing them that maybe playing a role in sustaining the anxiety.

It focuses on psychoeducation the client about cognitive distortions and with the help of relaxing techniques and systematic desensitization in some cases, manages the anxiety.

CBT has been proven to recover the person from Anxiety altogether by exposing the person to fearful stimulus and making them confront the situations they tend to avoid because of anxiety.

In milder to moderate cases, a person can get better by professional counselling alone.

However, sometimes the symptoms become so distressing that he needs medication.

There are different kinds of medications for anxiety management that control mental and physical symptoms.

These include Benzodiazepines, beta-blockers, antidepressants, and tricyclics.

Benzodiazepines: They manage the anxiety symptoms quite quickly but they are highly addictive and have few side-effects.

Valium or Diazepam are commonly prescribed Benzodiazepines.

Apart from these, Alprazolam also known as Xanax is used to treat Generalized anxiety disorder. These medicines are anti-anxiety drugs.

Antidepressants: they target depression but are prescribed for anxiety as well.

These are serotonin reuptake inhibitors and they have side effects of nausea, sexual dysfunction, and jitters when the treatment begins.

Prozac or Fluoxetine and Celexa, Citalopram or Mirtazapine are commonly used antidepressants.

Wellbutrin is another anti-depressant, mainly used to treat Major depressive disorder but can also treat anxiety.

Antipsychotics: Drugs like Prochlorperazine treat psychotic disorders such as schrizophrenia but can also be used for anxiety

Drugs like Abilify and Aripiprazole are also effective biological treatments for anxiety.

Gabapentin is another drug used to treat Generalized anxiety disorder.

Sometimes the side effects can get severe, in such cases, seek medical advice immediately.

Cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) is reported to be an effective treatment for anxiety. It is an FDA-approved, prescriptive, noninvasive electromedical treatment that has been shown to decrease anxiety, insomnia, and depression significantly.

Here is a quick list of the Best cranial electrotherapy stimulation devices that can lower symptoms of anxiety.

Side Note: I have tried and tested various products and services to help with my anxiety and depression. See my top recommendations here, as well as a full list of all products and services our team has tested for various mental health conditions and general wellness.

Conclusion

Anxiety is a natural response of a body in times of facing danger or a possible threat to survival.

It is not a medical condition as long as it is not severe enough to affect daily life.

When Anxiety exceeds its normal amount and distresses daily life for six months, it becomes an Anxiety Disorder.

There are different types of Anxiety disorders, among them, GAD is the most prevalent and common.

Other types are specific phobia (for example Trump anxiety disorder), social anxiety disorder, selective mutism, agoraphobia, and panic disorder.

Also, One might experience different types of anxiety later in their life, which are associated with old age.

For example, menopause anxiety.

Causes are complicated but any traumatic event in life can trigger anxiety. The treatment includes self-treatment at home, having psychological help and medications as well.

It has been suggested that having a good sleep routine, keeping check-lists and a balanced diet improves the anxiety symptoms and manages it for the short term.

Please make sure to let us know what you think about the article as well as your comments and suggestions regarding the condition, below in the comments section.

Frequently Asked Questions for Generalized Anxiety Disorder

What causes generalized anxiety disorder?

The generalized anxiety disorder is caused by genetic, personal, and environmental factors.

How long does generalized anxiety disorder last?

The generalized anxiety disorder can last longer, in generalized anxiety disorder the period of worry is required to be six months.

Is generalized anxiety disorder a mental illness?

Yes, generalized anxiety disorder is a mental illness.

What are the 6 types of anxiety disorders?

The five types of anxiety disorders are:

Generalized Anxiety Disorder.

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

Panic Disorder.

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

Social Phobia (or Social Anxiety Disorder)

What we recommend for curbing Anxiety

Below are some of the services and products we recommend for anxiety

Anxiety Weighted Blankets

  • Anxiety Weighted Blankets are by far the number 1 thing every person who suffers from anxiety should at least try. Anxiety Blankets may improve your sleep, allow you to fall asleep faster and you can even carry them around when chilling at home.

Online Therapy

  • Online therapy is another thing we should all try. We highly recommend Online therapy with a provider who not only provides therapy but a complete mental health toolbox to help your wellness.

Anxiety Course

  • With over 50,000 participants, this anxiety course may be just what you need to regain control of your life.

Light Therapy

  • Amber light therapy from Amber lights could increase the melatonin production in your body and help you sleep better at night.  An Amber light lamp helps reduce the amount of time it takes you to fall asleep and increases overall sleep quality.

References

NIMH

Medical News Today

Health Line

Recommended Readings

The Generalized Anxiety Disorder Workbook: A Comprehensive CBT Guide for Coping with Uncertainty, Worry, and Fear (New Harbinger Self-help Workbooks) 

 Dare: The New Way to End Anxiety and Stop Panic Attacks 

The Anxiety and Worry Workbook: The Cognitive Behavioral Solution 

Rewire Your Anxious Brain: How to Use the Neuroscience of Fear to End Anxiety, Panic, and Worry 

Overcoming Generalized Anxiety Disorder – Client Manual: A Relaxation, Cognitive Restructuring, and Exposure-Based Protocol for the Treatment of GAD (Best Practices for Therapy) 

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