DSM 5 bipolar (A guide)

DSM 5 bipolar

DSM 5 Bipolar – Understanding about the bipolar disorder according to the criteria established in the DSM 5.

In this guide, will be discussed about DSM 5 bipolar, symptoms, causes and treatment.

DSM 5 bipolar (A guide)

Defining DSM 5 Bipolar

Various definitions have been given about bipolar disorder.

Bipolar disorder, known in other ways as Bipolar Affective Disorder, is a mental illness characterized by fluctuations in the mood of the person, which interferes with their behaviour and how it is expressed.

Bipolar disorder is not a situation where a person passes from the mood to another, that is, the person is not in a happy moment and then begins to feel sad.

The mood that the person present can last for months, where the person for a time remains in one state and then in another period changes.

The person suffering from this type of mental disorder has problems to perform their daily activities.

Depending on the type of the disorder and the episodes that may occur, the person has an instability so severe that it can put them in some cases in a situation of resorting to a hospital, but, the person with this disorder can be someone so productive that you can see the exaggeration in all the things he does.

According to the DSM 5 bipolar, this disorder has a series of related disorders, so it is very important to know their symptoms at the time of diagnosis to have a clear idea about what type of bipolar disorder the person presents.

DSM 5 bipolar categories

Bipolar disorder has different types. The DSM 5 bipolar establishes the following criteria.

Bipolar Disorder I

The DSM 5 Bipolar speaks that to diagnose bipolar disorder 1, the following criteria for a manic episode must be met.

It also stands out that before or after the manic episode there may have been hypomanic episodes or major depressive episodes.

The criteria of the manic episode are:

a) A well defined period of abnormally and persistently elevated expansive or irritable mood, and an abnormal and persistent increase in activity or energy directed at a target, which lasts at least one week and is present most of the day or almost every day.

b) During the period of altered mood and increased energy or activity, the following behaviours occur:

  • Significant increase in self-esteem
  • Sleep a few hours
  • Talk more about the account
  • Brain drain
  • Easily distracted
  • Increase the activity of any type
  • Participate excessively in activities that have many possibilities of painful consequences

c) The alteration of the mood is so serious that it can cause deterioration in its social or work functioning, reaching the point of requiring hospitalization.

d) There are no substances involved in behaviours such as drugs, medication or alcohol.

The criteria of the hypomanic episode are:

A) Well defined period of abnormally and persistently high mood, expansive or irritable, and abnormal increase in energy.

B) During the period of altered mood and increased energy, some of the following behaviours occur:

  • Significant increase in self-esteem
  • Sleep a few hours
  • Talk more about the account
  • Brain drain
  • Easily distracted
  • Increase in activity of any type
  • Participate excessively in activities that have many possibilities of painful consequences

C) The episode is associated with an unequivocal change in functioning that is not characteristic of the individual when there are no symptoms.

D) Your altered mood and behaviours are notorious for other people.

E) The episode is not serious enough to cause impairments in their work or social performance.

F) There are no substances involved in behaviours such as drugs, medication or alcohol.

The major depression criteria are:

A) Five or more of the symptoms detailed below have been present during the same two-week period and represent a change in the previous functioning:

  • Depressed mood most of the day. The person feels sad, empty and with feelings of hopelessness
  • Loss of interest in activities that caused pleasure
  • Weight loss without the involvement of diets or exercises
  • Insomnia or hypersomnia almost every day
  • Tiredness
  • Feelings of worthlessness or excessive guilt
  • Decreased ability to think or concentrate, it is also difficult to make decisions
  • Recurring thoughts about death and suicidal ideas

B) The symptoms cause significant discomfort, affecting their physical health and their social and work environment.

C) These symptoms are not attributed to the effects of the consumption of any substance.

DSM 5 bipolar (A guide)

Bipolar II disorder

The DSM 5 Bipolar speaks that to diagnose bipolar II disorder, the following criteria for a current or past hypomanic episode and the criteria for a major depression episode have to be met.

The criteria of the hypomanic episode are:

A) Well defined period of abnormally and persistently high mood, expansive or irritable, and abnormal increase in energy.

B) During the period of altered mood and increased energy some of the following behaviours occur:

  • Significant increase in self-esteem
  • Sleep a few hours
  • Talk more about the account
  • Brain drain
  • Easily distracted
  • Increase in activity of any type
  • Participate excessively in activities that have many possibilities of painful consequences

C) The episode is associated with an unequivocal change in functioning that is not characteristic of the individual when he has no symptoms.

D) Your altered mood and behaviours are notorious for other people.

E) The episode is not serious enough to cause impairments in their work or social performance.

F) There are no substances involved in behaviours such as drugs, medication or alcohol.

The major depression criteria are:

A) Five or more of the symptoms detailed below have been present during the same two-week period and represent a change in the previous functioning:

  • Depressed mood most of the day. The person feels sad, empty and with feelings of hopelessness
  • Loss of interest in activities that caused pleasure
  • Weight loss without the involvement of diets or exercises
  • Insomnia or hypersomnia almost every day
  • Tiredness
  • Feelings of worthlessness or excessive guilt
  • Decreased ability to think or concentrate, it is also difficult to make decisions
  • Recurring thoughts about death and suicidal ideas

B) The symptoms cause significant discomfort, affecting your physical health and your social and work environment.

C) These symptoms are not attributed to the effects of the consumption of any substance.

DSM 5 bipolar (A guide)

Cyclothymic disorder

The DSM 5 Bipolar highlights what the cyclothymic disorder is and for this to occur, the following criteria must be met:

A) At least two years for hypomanic symptoms to occur but that does not meet the criteria of a manic episode and depressive episodes that do not meet the criteria for major depression.

B) At least two years so that the hypomanic and depressive periods have been present at least half of the time.

C) The criteria for an episode of major, manic or hypomanic depression have never been met.

D) There are no substances involved that alter the functioning of the person.

E) The symptoms cause discomfort in a way that interferes with the functioning of the person in various areas of its life.

DSM 5 bipolar (A guide)

Other bipolar disorders

DSM 5 Bipolar also refers to other bipolar disorders that may be present but do not meet the criteria mentioned above.

This does not mean that the above criteria are not, but not with the same frequency or period to be some of those mentioned above.

Other disorders mentioned in DSM 5 Bipolar are:

– Bipolar disorder and related substance / medication-induced disorder

– Bipolar and related disorder due to another medical condition

– Other Specified and Unspecified Bipolar and Related Disorders

DSM 5 bipolar (A guide)

Causes of DSM 5 Bipolar

There is no specific cause for which a person may have a greater tendency to have a bipolar disorder.

Among the factors are genetic ones, where the disorder can occur in families.

This does not mean that a person who has had a mother or a father with bipolar disorder is going to develop it, but it can be a cause that is at greater risk.

Another factor is that related to the brain structure or brain function of the person with the disorder.

Various studies are being carried out to know how the brain acts in people who suffer from these disorders.

Bipolar disorder treatment

From the diagnosis of DSM 5 Bipolar, there are various treatments to treat this disorder.

It is important to highlight that it is a disease that has no cure but that with the right treatment the symptoms can decrease, helping the person to lead a better quality of life.

Psychological treatment

This treatment includes the integration of psychological therapy to help relieve the symptoms of bipolar disorder.

Cognitive behavioural therapy is the most used to identify those behaviours and beliefs that lead the person to behave in a certain way.

Pharmacotherapy treatment

This treatment includes various types of drugs to control the symptoms of mental illness.

Among the most commonly used types of drugs are mood stabilizers, antipsychotics, antidepressants and antidepressants-antipsychotics.

These medications have the function of regulating the brain functioning of the person.

It controls the segregation of the substances involved in the mood of the person.

FAQs about DSM 5 Bipolar

What are the codes for bipolar II disorder and cyclothymia in DSM 5?

The bipolar DSM 5 sets the following codes:

– Bipolar II disorder: 296.89

– Cyclothymia: 301.13

What are the moods that a person with a bipolar disorder can present?

The DSM 5 bipolar states that a person can present moods that range from exaggerated joy, high self-esteem, a lot of energy, exaggerated realization of physical activities to feeling a sense of deep sadness, hopelessness and loss of interest in performing activities that once caused it a pleasure to the person.

Does the bipolar disorder have a cure?

No, this disease has no cure, but the treatment is focused on improving the quality of life of the person and if it is carrying it medication, it can live its life in a normal way.

Who can diagnose a bipolar disorder?

The diagnosis must be made by a mental health professional, who has the preparation and tools to work with these types of disorders.

Can a person die if it is not treated for bipolar disorder?

The disorder itself does not cause death, but within the symptoms are suicidal thoughts and if you do not receive the treatment the person may be able to attempt suicide.

Conclusion

The DSM 5 Bipolar details the different types of bipolar disorder and the criteria for its diagnosis.

It is important to know them well to differentiate them from others and know when a person suffers from the disorder.

This mental illness does not heal on its own, it requires a medical treatment that will help stabilize the person moods, helping it to carry out its daily activities.

Recommended links

  1. Understanding Mental Disorder: Your Guide to DSM 5
  2. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5)
  3. Bipolar Disorder: The Ultimate Guide

References

  1. Bipolar disorder 
  2. Bipolar disorder 
Juanita Agboola

Juanita Agboola is the editor in chief of HFNE and an expert in mental health online. She has been writing about online behavior, mental health and psychology issues since 2012. All Guides are reviewed by our editorial team which constitutes various clinical psychologists, PhD and PsyD colleagues.