Connor Davidson Resilience Scale (A guide)

This blog aims to give you information about the Connor Davidson Resilience Scale.

In this blog, you will be told about the uses of this scale, its reliability, validity, different versions, and much more.

So let’s move on and discover what is the Connor Davidson Resilience Scale.  

What is the Connor Davidson Resilience Scale? (CD-RISC)

The Connor Davidson Resilience Scale was made by Kathryn M. Conner and Jonathan R.T. Davidson for the purpose of measuring resilience.

This scale consists of 25 statements analyzed on the basis of a 5 point Likert scale (ranging from 0 – 4).

The scale helps to identify how resilient an individual is. This scale is also found to have a ceiling effect.

The Connor Davidson Resilience Scale is a scale that measures resilience.

In other words, this scale helps estimate the measure of how skillfully an individual reflects back the traumatic events, distressing situations, and uncomfortable emotions like anxiety and stress. 

The Connor Davidson Resilience Scale measures the ability of an individual to adapt to the change, the ability to manage the outcomes of the situation, the ability to cope with stress, the ability to stay mindful and attentive, the ability to stay encouraged and the ability to manage uncomfortable feelings like anxiety, anger, pain, guilt etcetera.

What is Resilience? 

Resilience is the ability of an individual to reflect back from the unpleasant situation or traumatic events.

Ups and downs are a part of life and can not be controlled.

Tragedies do occur most often and they make an individual feel deserted, low, sad, angry, failed etcetera.

If an individual is resilient, he eventually and easily moves on through tough times. 

Resilience can also be referred to as the tendency of an individual to cope with stress.

This helps him in the treatment of other psychological illnesses such as anxiety, anger, depression, and so forth. 

The Connor Davidson Resilience Scale was introduced for the purpose of measuring how resilient an individual is .

This scale has two versions. Let’s check them out. 

Versions of CD- RISC (2, 10 and 25 Items scale)

There are three versions of the Connor Davidson Resilience Scale that are approved for use.

These are the CD- RISC- 2, CD- RISC- 10 and CD- RISC- 25.

Other than these three, the rest are unauthorized versions that were created after violating the copyrights.  

CD- RISC- 2

The CD- RISC- 2 consists of only two items.

This version of the Connor Davidson Resilience Scale is used as a post-intervention scale, for checking the effectiveness of the treatment.

In view of Vaishnavi, Connor, and Davidson (2007), this version is a consistent and valid (both convergent and divergent) measure, that shows test-retest reliability.  

CD- RISC- 10

The CD- RISC- 10 version of the Connor Davidson Resilience Scale consists of 10 items only, selected from the 25 items of the original scale.

These 10 items are used to measure resilience on the basis of the readings on the Likert Scale (0- 4).

The range of this scale is from 0 to 40, where 0= not true at all and 4= true nearly all the time.

According to Gandubert, Ritchie, Soulier, Ancelin, and Chaudieu (2012), the CD-RISC was initially considered to be multifaceted, with factors that could be compared to persistence and competence, belief in one’s own aptitude and tolerating negative affect, welcoming change and security within relationships, control and spirituality.

Nonetheless, in later studies in which independent samples were researched, instability in the factor structure was observed.

As a result of this, the CD- DISC- 10 was developed. The ten items of the CD-DISC were considered to be an effective measure of the resilience of an individual.

This version of the Connor Davidson Resilience Scale is also found to have superb psychometric properties and can be used across the cultures.

CD-RISC-25

The CD- RISC- 25 version of the Connor Davidson Resilience Scale can be administered by oneself.

It consists of a total of 25 items and its scores range from 0 to 100. The psychometric properties of this version are also excellent. 

How Does Scoring Work?

According to Gandubert, Ritchie, Soulier, Ancelin, and Chaudieu (2012), the original version of the Connor Davidson Resilience Scale, that is, CD- DISC- 25, was developed for measuring the scores of resilience.

Higher scores reveal higher resilience. The scale is based on a 5 point Likert Scale, ranging from 0 to 4.

The possible scores of this scale range from 0 to 100. 

A Look at the Reliability and Validity of the CD-RISC

According to the results of the study of Gonzalez, Moore, Newton & Galli, (2015), the Connor Davidson Resilience Scale possesses very good reliability and validity. 

The research was mainly focused on 

  1. To examine the structure and fit of the original 25-item CD-RISC, as a five-factor scale and a unidimensional scale, as well as the 10-item scale.
  2. To examine any gender invariances.
  3. To examine the validity of the best fitting scale.

When compared to the unidimensional 25 item scale and the five-factor 25-item scale, via confirmatory factor and item-level analyses, the psychometric properties of the CD- DISC- 10 were found to be better than the former two scales (Gonzalez, Moore, Newton & Galli, 2015).

This scale was also found to show invariance for gender, checked via significant configural, strong, as well as weak analyses.

The ten-item scale was found to be positively and moderately correlating with positive affect.

A negative association of this scale was found with performance anxiety and negative affect.

The scale also established convergent (Gonzalez, Moore, Newton & Galli, 2015).

Another study revealed that the 10-item scale possesses high internal consistency (Gandubert, Ritchie, Soulier, Ancelin, and Chaudieu, 2012). 

A study on the psychometric properties of the scale showed that the scale possesses good internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and validity (both convergent and divergent) (Gandubert, Ritchie, Soulier, Ancelin, and Chaudieu (2012).

Translations of the CD-RISC

A total of seventy-seven approved translations of CD- RISC are available for use. 

Where Can I Download the CD-RISC Online? (PDF)

The different versions of the Connor Davidson Resilience Scale can be accessed from the Connor Davidson Resilience Scale Website after taking permission from the authors. 

This blog gave you details about the Connor Davidson Resilience Scale.

The blog mentioned the uses, different versions and psychometric properties of this scale.

The blog also explained resilience in detail.

If you have any queries or questions regarding this blog, let us know through your comments.

We will be glad to assist you. 

Side Note: I have tried and tested various products and services to help with my anxiety and depression. See my top recommendations here, as well as a full list of all products and services our team has tested for various mental health conditions and general wellness.

References 

Development of a new resilience scale: the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) by Connor KM1, Davidson JR (2013)

An in-depth psychometric analysis of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale: calibration with Rasch-Andrich model by Víctor B. Arias González, María Teresa Crespo Sierra, Benito Arias Martínez, Agustín Martínez-Molina & Fernando P. Ponce (2015)

The Connor Davidson + Brief Resilience Scales (Incl. PDF) by Leslie Riopel (2019)

Connor Davidson Resilience Scale: What It Measures And How It Helps by Julia Thomas (2020)

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